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2018-11-27

Каналы передачи данных | Сетевое программирование | Базы данных | Основы Веб-программирования

Jinja2

Jinja2 — самый популярный шаблонизатор в языке программирования Python. Автор Armin Ronacher из команды http://www.pocoo.org/ не раз приезжал на конференции в Екатеринбург с докладами о своих продуктах.

Синтаксис Jinja2 сильно похож на Django-шаблонизатор, но при этом дает возможность использовать чистые Python выражения и поддерживает гибкую систему расширений.

Hello {{ name }}!

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Template

template = Template('Hello {{ name }}!')
print(template.render(name=u'Вася'))

Hello Вася!

{# Комментарии #}

{# Это кусок кода, который стал временно не нужен, но удалять жалко
    {% for user in users %}
        ...
    {% endfor %}
#}

{% Операторы %}

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Template
text = '{% for item in range(5) %}Hello {{ name }}! {% endfor %}'
template = Template(text)
print(template.render(name=u'Вася'))

Hello Вася! Hello Вася! Hello Вася! Hello Вася! Hello Вася!

Модули

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Template
template = Template("{% set a, b, c = 'foo', 'фуу', 'föö' %}")
m = template.module
print(m.a)
print(m.b)
print(m.c)
foo
фуу
föö

Макросы

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Template

template = Template('{% macro foo() %}42{% endmacro %}23')
m = template.module
print(m)
print(m.foo())
23
42

Чтение из файла

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    {% for item in range(5) %}
      Hello {{ name }}!
    {% endfor %}
  </body>
</html>
jinja2/3.loader/0.file.py — чтение шаблона из файла
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Template

html = open('foopkg/templates/0.hello.html').read()
template = Template(html)
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))
Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>

      Hello Петя!

      Hello Петя!

      Hello Петя!

      Hello Петя!

      Hello Петя!

  </body>
</html>

Окружение (Environment)

Настройки

Загрузчики шаблонов (Loaders)

FileSystemLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader

env = Environment(loader=FileSystemLoader('foopkg/templates'))
template = env.get_template('0.hello.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

PackageLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, PackageLoader

env = Environment(loader=PackageLoader('foopkg', 'templates'))

template = env.get_template('0.hello.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

DictLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, DictLoader

html = '''<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    {% for item in range(5) %}
      Hello {{ name }}!
    {% endfor %}
  </body>
</html>
'''

env = Environment(loader=DictLoader({'index.html': html}))
template = env.get_template('index.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

FunctionLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader

html = '''<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    {% for item in range(5) %}
      Hello {{ name }}!
    {% endfor %}
  </body>
</html>
'''


def myloader(name):
    if name == 'index.html':
        return html

env = Environment(loader=FunctionLoader(myloader))
template = env.get_template('index.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

PrefixLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader, PackageLoader, PrefixLoader

html = '''<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    {% for item in range(5) %}
      Hello {{ name }}!
    {% endfor %}
  </body>
</html>
'''


def myloader(name):
    if name == 'index.html':
        return html

env = Environment(loader=PrefixLoader({
    'foo': FunctionLoader(myloader),
    'bar': PackageLoader('foopkg', 'templates')
}))
template1 = env.get_template('foo/index.html')
template2 = env.get_template('bar/0.hello.html')
print(template1.render(name=u'Петя'))
print(template2.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

ChoiceLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, FunctionLoader, PackageLoader, ChoiceLoader

html = '''<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
  <head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" />
  </head>
  <body>
    {% for item in range(5) %}
      Hello {{ name }}!
    {% endfor %}
  </body>
</html>
'''


def myloader(name):
    if name == 'index.html':
        return html

env = Environment(loader=ChoiceLoader({
    FunctionLoader(myloader),
    PackageLoader('foopkg', 'templates')
}))
template1 = env.get_template('index.html')
template2 = env.get_template('0.hello.html')
print(template1.render(name=u'Петя'))
print(template2.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

ModuleLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader, ModuleLoader

# Compile template
Environment(loader=FileSystemLoader('foopkg/templates'))\
    .compile_templates("foopkg/compiled/foopkg.zip",
                       py_compile=True)  # pyc generate, only for python2

# Environment
env = Environment(loader=ModuleLoader("foopkg/compiled/foopkg.zip"))
template = env.get_template('0.hello.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

BaseLoader

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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from os.path import exists, getmtime, join

from jinja2 import BaseLoader, Environment, TemplateNotFound


class FoopkgLoader(BaseLoader):

    def __init__(self, path="foopkg/templates"):
        self.path = path

    def get_source(self, environment, template):
        path = join(self.path, template)
        if not exists(path):
            raise TemplateNotFound(template)
        mtime = getmtime(path)
        with open(path) as f:
            source = f.read()
        return source, path, lambda: mtime == getmtime(path)

# Environment
env = Environment(loader=FoopkgLoader())
template = env.get_template('0.hello.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))

Результат рендеринга шаблона jinja2/3.loader/foopkg/templates/0.hello.html

Шаблон конфига Nginx

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server {
         listen {{ SRC_SERVER_PUB_IP }}:80;
         servern_name {{ FQDN }} www.{{ FQDN }}

          location / {
              proxy_pass         http://{{ SRC_SERVER_LOCAL_IP }}:80/;
              proxy_redirect     off;

              proxy_set_header   Host             $host;
              proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP        $remote_addr;
              proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
         }
}
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#!/usr/bin/env python
from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader

env = Environment(loader=FileSystemLoader('.'))

template = env.get_template('nginx_proxy_conf.tpl')

data = {
    "SRC_SERVER_PUB_IP": "192.168.0.100",
    "SRC_SERVER_LOCAL_IP": "10.0.3.100",
    "FQDN": "example.com"
}

conf = template.render(**data)
print(conf)

open("proxy.nginx.conf", "w").write(conf)
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server {
         listen 192.168.0.100:80;
         servern_name example.com www.example.com

          location / {
              proxy_pass         http://10.0.3.100:80/;
              proxy_redirect     off;

              proxy_set_header   Host             $host;
              proxy_set_header   X-Real-IP        $remote_addr;
              proxy_set_header   X-Forwarded-For  $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
         }
}

{% extends «Наследование» %}

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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    {% block head %}
      <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" />
      <title>{% block title %}{% endblock %} - My Webpage</title>
      <meta charset='utf-8'>
    {% endblock %}
</head>
<body>
    <div id="content">{% block content %}{% endblock %}</div>
    <div id="footer">
        {% block footer %}
          &copy; Copyright 2008 by <a href="http://domain.invalid/">you</a>.
        {% endblock %}
    </div>
</body>
</html>
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{% extends "base.html" %}
{% block title %}Index{% endblock %}
{% block head %}
    {{ super() }}
    <style type="text/css">
        .important { color: #336699; }
    </style>
{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
    <h1>Index</h1>
    <p class="important">
      Welcome {{ name }} to my awesome homepage.
    </p>
{% endblock %}
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# -*- coding: utf-8 -*-
from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader

env = Environment(loader=FileSystemLoader('.'))
template = env.get_template('index.html')
print(template.render(name=u'Петя'))
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>


    <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" />
    <title>Index — My Webpage</title>
    <meta charset='utf-8'>

    <style type="text/css">
        .important { color: #336699; }
    </style>

</head>
<body>
    <div id="content">
    <h1>Index</h1>
    <p class="important">
      Welcome Петя to my awesome homepage.
    </p>
</div>
    <div id="footer">

        &copy; Copyright 2008 by <a href="http://domain.invalid/">you</a>.

    </div>
</body>
</html>
../../../_images/inherit.png

Блог

templates/base.html — базовый шаблон.
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<!DOCTYPE html>
<html lang="en">
<head>
    {% block head %}
      <link rel="stylesheet" href="style.css" />
      <title>{% block title %}{% endblock %} - My Blog</title>
      <meta charset='utf-8'>
    {% endblock %}
</head>
<body>
    <div id="content">{% block content %}{% endblock %}</div>
    <br />
    <br />
    <br />
    <div id="footer">
        {% block footer %}
          &copy; Copyright 2015 by <a href="http://domain.invalid/">you</a>.
        {% endblock %}
    </div>
</body>
</html>
Главная страница templates/index.html наследуется от templates/base.html
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{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Index{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
    <h1>Simple Blog</h1>
    <a href="/article/add">Add article</a>
    <br />
    <br />
    {% for article in articles %}
      {{ article.id }} - (<a href="/article/{{ article.id }}/delete">delete</a> |
      <a href="/article/{{ article.id }}/edit">edit</a>)
      <a href="/article/{{ article.id }}">{{ article.title }}</a><br />
    {% endfor %}
{% endblock %}
templates/create.html наследуется от базового шаблона.
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{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Create{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
    <h1>Simple Blog -> EDIT</h1>
    <form action="" method="POST">
        Title:<br>
        <input type="text" name="title" value="{{ article.title }}"><br>
        Content:<br>
        <textarea name="content">{{ article.content }}</textarea><br><br>
        <input type="submit" value="Submit">
    </form>
{% endblock %}
templates/read.html наследуется от базового шаблона.
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{% extends "base.html" %}

{% block title %}Index{% endblock %}
{% block content %}
    <h1><a href="/">Simple Blog</a> -> READ</h1>
    <h2>{{ article.title }}</h2>
    {{  article.content }}
{% endblock %}
views.py — окружение Jinja2.
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from models import ARTICLES

from jinja2 import Environment, FileSystemLoader

env = Environment(loader=FileSystemLoader('templates'))


class BaseBlog(object):

    def __init__(self, environ, start_response):
        self.environ = environ
        self.start = start_response


class BaseArticle(BaseBlog):

    def __init__(self, *args):
        super(BaseArticle, self).__init__(*args)
        article_id = self.environ['wsgiorg.routing_args'][1]['id']
        (self.index,
         self.article) = next(((i, art) for i, art in enumerate(ARTICLES)
                               if art['id'] == int(article_id)),
                              (None, None))


class BlogIndex(BaseBlog):

    def __iter__(self):
        self.start('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
        yield str.encode(
            env.get_template('index.html').render(articles=ARTICLES)
        )


class BlogCreate(BaseBlog):

    def __iter__(self):
        if self.environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper() == 'POST':
            from urllib.parse import parse_qs
            values = parse_qs(self.environ['wsgi.input'].read())
            max_id = max([art['id'] for art in ARTICLES])
            ARTICLES.append(
                {'id': max_id+1,
                 'title': values[b'title'].pop().decode(),
                 'content': values[b'content'].pop().decode()
                 }
            )
            self.start('302 Found',
                       [('Content-Type', 'text/html'),
                        ('Location', '/')])
            return

        self.start('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
        yield str.encode(
            env.get_template('create.html').render(article=None)
        )


class BlogRead(BaseArticle):

    def __iter__(self):
        if not self.article:
            self.start('404 Not Found', [('content-type', 'text/plain')])
            yield b'not found'
            return

        self.start('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
        yield str.encode(
            env.get_template('read.html').render(article=self.article)
        )


class BlogUpdate(BaseArticle):

    def __iter__(self):
        if self.environ['REQUEST_METHOD'].upper() == 'POST':
            from urllib.parse import parse_qs
            values = parse_qs(self.environ['wsgi.input'].read())
            self.article['title'] = values[b'title'].pop().decode()
            self.article['content'] = values[b'content'].pop().decode()
            self.start('302 Found',
                       [('Content-Type', 'text/html'),
                        ('Location', '/')])
            return
        self.start('200 OK', [('Content-Type', 'text/html')])
        yield str.encode(
            env.get_template('create.html').render(article=self.article)
        )


class BlogDelete(BaseArticle):

    def __iter__(self):
        self.start('302 Found',  # '301 Moved Permanently',
                   [('Content-Type', 'text/html'),
                    ('Location', '/')])
        ARTICLES.pop(self.index)
        yield b''
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